Dry Bulk Terminals Characteristics

Ports & Terminals

Dry Bulk Terminals Characteristics

Due to the high demand for energy and steel new dry bulk terminals will have to be built and existing terminals are being forced to expand. Because of the absence of a comprehensive and detailed design method of dry bulk terminals, designs are mostly based on rules of thumb and practical experiences. In this paper 49 terminals are studied using various references, like annual reports, port authorities’ information and Google Earth, to characterize a terminal.
(ed. WoMaMarcel - 29/7/2014)
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Two main types of terminals are distinguished; import and export terminals. The investigated export terminals are situated in Australia, Brazil, South Africa and India and the import terminals are located in Western Europe, Japan and China. Typical terminal characteristics like annual throughput, installed equipment capacities, quay length and storage factors, maximum storage capacity, stockyard dimensions and the number of terminal equipment are determined. Some rules of thumb from several literature sources are verified but these match poorly with the current terminals. If the determined characteristics are used for terminal design, the designs may vary significantly considering the large range of these characteristics. The determined capacity factors and the relations between the equipment capacities can be used as guidelines for calculating the equipment capacities. Another finding of the research is that at import terminals the installed stockyard equipment capacity is twice as high as for export terminals, to handle the same annual throughput. Finally, a view of the future research is given.
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