Lining Materials for Bulk Solids Handling Equipment

Wear & Abrasion

Lining Materials for Bulk Solids Handling Equipment

Selection of Materials for the Iron & Steel Industry – An Integrated Approach
The handling, storage and transportation of raw materials and intermediate products in the preliminary stages of iron and steel production are a cumbersome task, due to their vast amount and abrasiveness. Liners may help to reduce these negative effects.
(ed. WoMaMarcel - 16/12/2014)
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Sintered Alumina

Alumina ceramic tiles can be used with varying degree of Alumina content starting from 90 to 99.9 purity level. These are the hardest of all material except diamond. These are extremely suitable for application requiring resistance to severe abrasion and impact.

Depending upon the service requirement, the purity of Alumina can be varied. For most of the tribological components and for your application condition as well, Alumina purity of the order of 92-96% is sufficient. The hardness on R45N scale may be maintained in the range of 75-81.

As the Alumina ceramic tiles are manufactured with powdered Aluminium Oxide by sintering process, these can be obtained in any predefined shape and size.

The Alumina ceramic tiles exhibit extremely good physical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties for industrial applications. Using >90% purity fine grained alumina with a density (Sp. Gr.) of ~3.5 g/cm³ and sintered with appropriate additions to produce a hardness of >8 Moh’s (>75 R45N) with 0 (zero) porosity may be a suitable choice for lining materials where severe wear is accompanied with temperature and chemical attack under low impact condition. These tiles may be formed with mild steel backings plates. 


The guidelines for selection and use of liner materials have been enumerated at several occasions and have been a subject of great discussion. The choices among high Cr iron alloy, quenched and tempered steels, alumina ceramic, polyurythene, UHMWP, rubber, basalt can be made by understanding the merits and demerits of each material and requirements of the specific application conditions.
The authors wish to express their deep sense of gratitude to the management of Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel (RDCIS), Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) for permission granted to pursue the work. The authors would like to acknowledge the efforts and cooperation from the laboratory staffs in carrying out the investigations. The authors would also like to acknowledge the support provided by the management of Bokaro Steels Limited (BSL) and Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in evaluating the performance of experimental materials.

Additional Readings

  1. Moore, M.A.: A Review of Two Body Abrasive Wear; Wear, Vol. 27, 1974, pp. 1-17.
  2. Richardson, R.C.D.: The Wear of Me-tals by Hard Particles; Wear, Vol. 10, pp. 291-309.
  3. Haworth, Jr., R.D.: The Abrasion Resistance of Metals; Transactions ASM, Vol. 41, 1949, pp 189-199.
  4. Diesberg, D.E., and F. Borik: Optimizing Abrasion Resistance and Toughness in Steels and Irons for Mining Industry, Climax Molybdenum Company, Materials for the Mining Industry, 1974, pp 15-41.
  5. Norman, T.E.: High Chromium Molybdenum White Cast Irons for Abrasion Resistant Castings; Foundry Magazine, Vol. 68, 1958, pp. 128-131.
  6. Miller, Robert F.: Cladded Wear Plates find Mining Applications, Minetec, 1989.
  7. Holmes, R.E.: Selection of Materials for Lining of Chutes; 1st Intern. Chute Design Conference, South Africa, 1991.
  8. Lansdown, A.R., and A.L. Price: Materials to Resist Wear-A Guide to their Selection and Use; The Pergamon Materials Engineering Practice Series, Pergamon Press, First Edition, 1986.

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