Lining Materials for Bulk Solids Handling Equipment

Wear & Abrasion

Lining Materials for Bulk Solids Handling Equipment

Selection of Materials for the Iron & Steel Industry – An Integrated Approach
The handling, storage and transportation of raw materials and intermediate products in the preliminary stages of iron and steel production are a cumbersome task, due to their vast amount and abrasiveness. Liners may help to reduce these negative effects.
(ed. WoMaMarcel - 16/12/2014)
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Steel production involves a vast amount of materials  handling .

The volume of raw materials and intermediate products handled in an integrated iron and steel plant is enormously high. Handling, storage and transportation of these materials in the preliminary stages of iron and steel production are a cumbersome task due to large volumes of different materials and their aggressive natures. The equipments in-volved in material handling such as chutes, hoppers, bins, vibrators, feeders, and bunkers are lined through their working surfaces for protection from the service attacks and to facilitate repair and replacement of the wearing surfaces.

The studies undertaken to improve the performances of lining materials have revealed that high Cr-iron-alloy offers a suitable choice because of superior abrasion resistance and moderate impact condition. The service requirements of lining materials for bulk handling equipments and characteristic features of some of the new generation lining materials will be discussed briefly.


Lining materials must fulfill a number of conflicting requirements and hence their selection and use are often dictated by a large number of factors including design and layout of the wearing surfaces of the components; characteristics of the materials being handled; various kinds of service attacks; namely abrasion, erosion, fretting, corrosion, impact and many more due to the interaction between working surfaces of liners and highly aggressive raw materials. The schematic representation of a bulk solid handling system is presented in Fig. 2.

Advances in Lining Materials

The selection and use of materials for lining applications have a chronological development. In the early days unalloyed constructional steels were being used. With the development of modern steel making technologies, the use of alloyed steel received prominence in this area. However, due to the limitations of forming of high alloyed steel, their use got restricted to certain shape and size and could not gain wide spread use. The use of iron and steel alloys in the form of castings was accepted across a wide range of engineering industries because of the possibility of obtaining suitable alloys in desired shape and size. The research and investigations in the field of abrasive wear and the advent of newer materials have given industries a choice of selecting materials from metallic, non-metallic, composites, ceramics and polymers. The relative wear index of some of the state-of-art materials are presented in Fig. 3.
The range of lining materials that can be used for combating wear in the order of minimum wear resistance first, but maximum resistance to impact, is as follows:
Polyurethane/Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWP)

  • Plain Carbon Steel
  • Medium Carbon Low Alloy Steel
  • Mn-Steel
  • Martensitic Stainless Steel
  • Tool Steel
  • High Cr iron Alloy
  • Sintered Alumina
  • Silicon Carbide

Influence of Wear

Wear, unlike other mechanical properties, is not an intrinsic property of material but a system dependant property. The nature and extent of wear depend on the operating environment and it becomes essential for an engineer or designer to consider the operating conditions to rightly choose the material for a specific application. The properties that influence its wear characteristics can be altered and modified by employing a range of engineering treatments. It is therefore required to employ a specialist insight to select the appropriate material suitably treated to meet the requirements of a particular application. The key factors influencing choice of lining materials for steel plant applications are the degree of severity of the material being handled and the impact level (Low, Moderate, High).

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